Tibetan Mastiff Information & Dog Breed Facts
Collection of all the general dog breed info about Tibetan Mastiff so you can get to know the breed more.
Compare the Tibetan Mastiff With Other Dogs |
Select at least one dog breed to make the comparsion.
Other Names |
What other names does the Tibetan Mastiff have?
Breed Type |
What type of dog breed is it?
How much does the Tibetan Mastiff puppy cost? What is the price range of this puppy? What is the average price of a Tibetan Mastiff in the United States? How much money is a Tibetan Mastiff?
Where to buy a Tibetan Mastiff with a good pedigree?
If you choose to purchase the Tibetan Mastiff, you should know that the mentioned amount of money is an average of the collected data from breeders’ sites and puppy finder places. If you have a Tibetan Mastiff for sale, please advertise it on a reliable website to make sure the Tibetan Mastiff gets to a happy place.
How easy is it to get a Tibetan Mastiff? How many Tibetan Mastiff are there in the world?
Frequent: The Tibetan Mastiff is easier than average to get. Maybe there is some risk of overbreeding, as it is a popular breed.
Due to its popularity, inbreeding may occur. A new study shows that inbreeding contributes to the incidence of disease and health problems.So be careful and seek the help of an experienced person or a professional, in making your decision.
Is a Tibetan Mastiff small, medium or large dog?
How big do Tibetan Mastiff get?
What is the average size of a Tibetan Mastiff?
How much does the Tibetan Mastiff weigh? How much should a Tibetan Mastiff weight? What is the normal weight of a Tibetan Mastiff? How much does a full-grown Tibetan Mastiff weight?
|140-170 pounds (64-78 kg)|
Average Weight |
What is the average weight of a Tibetan Mastiff?
|155 pounds (71 kg)|
How tall is the Tibetan Mastiff? Tibetan Mastiff height:
|25-28 inches (61-71 cm)|
Average Height |
What is the average height of a Tibetan Mastiff?
|26.5 inches (66 cm)|
Coat / Hair Types |
What type of coat does the Tibetan Mastiff have? What does this canine coat/fur look like?
What color is the breed's coat? What color are proper Tibetan Mastiff coats?
|BlackGrayTan Red Blue Brown|
How to groom the Tibetan Mastiff and how often? How often should I take my Tibetan Mastiff to the groomer?
Average: The Tibetan Mastiff requires average grooming effort. Cutting the dog's hair by a professional groomer isn't essential.
Brushing the dog's coat is useful to reduce shedding. Ears and eyes should be cleaned regularly to avoid infections.
Don't skip the seasonal flea treatment too. Dog nail trimming and dog bath can be helpful sometimes.
Check the local pet store for dog grooming supplies and find the best dog shampoo to keep its coat healthy and give your dog a pleasant experience of a dog bath.
If you don't have the time, skill, or money to take care of your Tibetan Mastiff, search for a dog groomer or clipping service in your area and book an appointment.
Maybe you're lucky to have a dog boarding service that includes grooming or walk-in dog bath places nearby.
Shedding Level |
How much do Tibetan Mastiff dogs shed? How to control, reduce and prevent the shedding of the Tsang-khyi? Do Tibetan Mastiff dogs shed a lot?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs shed moderately. It's a natural process of the hair growth cycle. Regular brushing reduces the amount of hair that sheds. It mostly depends on their health status and breed type.
Bath Time / Bathing Frequency |
How often does the Tibetan Mastiff need a bath? How often should you give a Tibetan Mastiff a bath? Can I bathe my Tibetan Mastiff every day?
| 6-8 weeks |
Rarely. Bathing your dog is beneficial to them in more ways than just one. It’s also a good time to look for unusual scratches, bumps, fleas, and other irregularities. When their hair is wet and flat against their body, these details are more visible.
For example, short-haired dog breeds can go a very long time in between baths. These short-haired breeds shed regularly and that shedding works to naturally remove excess dirt and oil. So unless your weenie dog got into the garbage can, you can probably hold off on a bath for a while.
What kind of personality does the Tibetan Mastiff have? What characteristics or traits does the breed have?
Intelligent Rank |
How smart is the Tibetan Mastiff? Is the Tibetan Mastiff breed dumb or smart?
Average: It takes patience to teach this breed any tricks or commands, but the effort is worth it. They understand and remember new commands after an average of 25-40 repetitions.
The Tibetan Mastiff ranks average in the intelligence ranking of dogs.
Are Tibetan Mastiff dogs easy to train? Do they go well on dog training? How hard is it to train a Tibetan Mastiff?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are quite easy to train. Sometimes they can be challenging, but if you're consistent in teaching new commands they will obey for sure.
How playful is this breed?
Average: Tibetan Mastiffs, like any other dog breed, like playing. Sometimes they bark in excitement for playing, but they are not the most playful dog breed.
Sensitivity Level |
How sensitive are they? Tibetan Mastiff sensitivity:
Sensitive: Tibetan Mastiff dogs don't like an irregular daily routine, noisy household, and frequent guest visits.
This breed's emotional level reflects their owner's feelings and they don't handle punishments well.
Affection Level |
How affectionate are they? Is a Tibetan Mastiff a good family dog?
Average: Tibetan Mastiff dogs are average dogs regarding their affection level. Some breeds are forthcoming and friendly, while others are independent and don't bond too closely with their owners.
Social Needs |
How much social interaction does the Tsang-khyi need? Tibetan Mastiff social needs:
Tibetan Mastiff dogs need for social interaction is average. This breed likes being around people or other animals, but they don't mind being left alone for a few hours either.
Do Tibetan Mastiff dogs bark a lot? Are they barkers/noisy? Why does my Tsang-khyi bark?
A lot: Tibetan Mastiff is a particularly loud breed. They often enjoy barking and howling loudly. If you want a quiet dog, not the best choice.
The main triggers for barking are fear, attention, alarm, boredom, greeting, separation anxiety, compulsive barking, and defense.
Watchdog Ability |
Is Tibetan Mastiff good as a watchdog? Are they alert at night?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are one of the best watchdogs. Their main job is to observe and they're very consistent in their effort. The best vocal cords and sense of hearing belong to them. Usually, they're very territorial and protective about their property, so the Tibetan Mastiff dogs will alert you if they sense something different.
Guarding Behavior / Territorial |
Do Tibetan Mastiff dogs have aggressive behavior to protect their home/house/territory? Do they have guarding instincts?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are extremely protective guard dogs. This breed doesn't hesitate to protect its territory so the Tibetan Mastiff can be a good choice if you want an excellent guard dog. Keep calm and the Tibetan Mastiff will take care of unwanted people or animals.
Biting Potential |
Do Tibetan Mastiff bite humans? How likely are you to get bitten from the Tsang-khyi? What are the odds of getting bitten by a Tibetan Mastiff? Why do dog bites happen?
The Tibetan Mastiff has a high chance of biting somebody. Top reasons for dog bite: protection, pain, excitement, herding instinct, being provoked. (Data based on the available online bite statistics.)
Bite Force |
Does the Tibetan Mastiff has a hard bite? What is the bite force of a Tibetan Mastiff? How much bite force does a Tibetan Mastiff have?
Between 200 and 400 PSI ⏺
Tibetan Mastiff bite force: Ordinary. Average dogs have a bite force between 200 and 400 PSI.
The Tibetan Mastiff, and many others, have a fearsome presence because they have significant jaw strength, so it is important not to anger the dog and have it around strangers until it is fully trained.
However, they are usually quite calm and good companions, they work well in families and are easy to care for.
How much mouthing/nipping/play biting does the Tibetan Mastiff do?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs have a strong tendency to nip, chew, playbite, or herd people. It's a common habit during puppyhood, not aggressive behavior. These "bites" don't hurt, but Tibetan Mastiff dogs need to be taught a good attitude.
Impulse to Wander or Roam |
How likely is the Tibetan Mastiff to run away? Does this breed explore or wander a lot? Does Tibetan Mastiff roam?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs have average wanderlust potential. Sometimes they like to explore the world and they might escape once or twice, but usually, they prefer staying safely at home. Safer to teach them how to get back to you on command.
Prey Drive |
Do this canine have a strong prey drive? Does Tibetan Mastiff have high prey drive?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs have an average prey drive, which means that they don't have a high impulse to chase and catch something like a cat or any other small aminals, but it might happen. Training can help to achieve good behavior.
Apartment Friendly |
Is Tibetan Mastiff good as an apartment dog? Can they live in a flat? Can you have a Tibetan Mastiff in an apartment?
Not an apartment-friendly dog the Tibetan Mastiff breed. If you don't have a garden, think carefully about your decision, keeping Tibetan Mastiff indoors can cause a lot of problems.
Are they adaptable and easy-going?
Average: Tibetan Mastiff dogs adapt to lifestyle changes and different living environments quite okay usually.
Tolerates Being Left Alone |
How long can a Tibetan Mastiff be left alone? How long can you leave a Tibetan Mastiff alone?
Just like every puppy, they are prone to panic, cry, bark, whine when they left alone by their owner. With proper socialization and quality time with the dog can solve this problem.
Stranger Friendly |
Are they aggressive or friendly towards/with strangers? Tibetan Mastiff temperament with other people:
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are not stranger friendly dogs.
Pet Friendly |
Are they pet-friendly dogs? How well do Tibetan Mastiff dogs get along with other pets? Are Tibetan Mastiff dogs good with pets? What is this canine temperament with other pets?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are generally with other pets.
Child Friendly |
Are Tibetan Mastiff dogs kid-friendly? Are they good with young children? Tibetan Mastiff temperament with children:
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are not the most kid-friendly dogs. If you have children, you may have to reconsider your choice of having a puppy from this breed.
Cat Friendly |
How well do Tibetan Mastiff dogs get along with cats? Are they good with kittens? What is this fido's temperament with cats? Can they be good with cats? Can the Tibetan Mastiff breed live with a cat?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are average friendly towards cats.
Dog Friendly |
Is Tibetan Mastiff good with other dogs? Are they dog-friendly dogs? How well do Tibetan Mastiff dogs get along with other dogs?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are not the most dog-friendly dogs. If you want more dogs in your family or you'd like to join dog meetups, the Tibetan Mastiff is not a good choice.
Good For First Time Owners |
Is Tibetan Mastiff breed good for first-time owners? Do they make a good dog for novice owners? Is Tibetan Mastiff breed suitable for first-time owners?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are good for novice owners, due to their easy-going personality.
Office Friendly |
Are Tibetan Mastiff dogs good office canines? Do Tibetan Mastiff dogs make good office-friendly pets? Can they be office dogs?
Tibetan Mastiff is not the best dog breed for office environment.
Senior Citizens Friendly |
Are they senior citizens friendly dogs? How well do Tibetan Mastiff dogs get along with the elderly people? What is the Tsang-khyi temperament with senior people? Are Tibetan Mastiff dogs good for elderly owners?
Tibetan Mastiffs are not the best breed for elderly people.
Health Issues |
Is it a healthy or unhealthy breed? Do Tibetan Mastiff dogs have health problems or genetic diseases?
Tibetan Mastiffs tend to have more frequent health issues than other breeds. Regular vet check-ups are needed.
Health Problems |
What genetic/health problems does the Tibetan Mastiff breed have? What are the health issues and concerns of the Tibetan Mastiff breed? Most common health risks of Tibetan Mastiff:
|Hip DysplasiaAutoimmune HypothyroidismElbow DysplasiaOsteochondrosis DissecansPanosteitisCanine Inherited Demyelinative Neuropathy|
Veterinarian Visits |
How often does the Tibetan Mastiff breed need to go to the vet? How often should you take your dog to the vet? How often should the Tibetan Mastiff see the vet?
The Tibetan Mastiff should have a complete physical check-up at least once (but preferably twice) per year. If your dog shows any symptoms, call your veterinarian.
Life Expectancy |
How long do Tibetan Mastiff dogs live? How old can a Tibetan Mastiff be? What is the age limit of the Tibetan Mastiff? How many years can the oldest Tibetan Mastiff live?
What is the average life expectancy / lifespan of a Tibetan Mastiff?
How long is the lifespan of a Tibetan Mastiff?
The average lifespan of Tibetan Mastiff: 12 years
Is the Tibetan Mastiff breed hypoallergenic?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs don't do well with allergy sufferers by causing allergic reactions. Some dog breeds are even considered to higher possibility of an allergic response. Coat type isn't necessarily relevant, because most people are allergic to dander (flakes on the dog's skin) or saliva, not actually to dog hair.
Energy Level |
How much energy does the Tibetan Mastiff have? What is the activity level of the Tibetan Mastiff?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs have a higher energy level than other dog breeds. If you want a dog for snuggling on the couch, this breed isn't the perfect choice for you.
Activity Requirement / Exercise Need |
How much exercise does a Tibetan Mastiff need? How much exercise do Tibetan Mastiff dogs require per day?
Do Tibetan Mastiff dogs need a lot of exercises?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs have an average exercise need. This breed is satisfied with short walks every weekday and a long ones on weekends.
Sleeping Need |
How much sleep does the Tibetan Mastiff breed need?
Tibetan Mastiff dogs are quite energetic dogs and they don't spend too much time with sleeping. If you live an active life, this breed can be a good choice for you.
Average daily food consumption |
How much food does a Tibetan Mastiff need? What dog products should I buy? How much food does a Tibetan Mastiff breed eat per day? What is good dog food for Tibetan Mastiff? How much food should I feed my Tibetan Mastiff?
|6 to 8 cups of high-quality dry food a day, divided into two meals.|
Weight Gain Potential / Prone to Obesity |
How easy to gain weight for this dog? Tibetan Mastiff risk for obesity:
Average to High: If you don't pay attention to the Tibetan Mastiff's weight, he can easily gain weight. More than one daily walk should be on schedule. To make your dog happy and fit, feed him with quality dry dog food and live an active life together. Try to find the happy medium between exercise and feeding.
If you notice any weight gain, consult your veterinarian and make a diet plan. Reduce unhealthy food and snacks, and measure the Tibetan Mastiff weight regularly.
Weather and Climate |
Which weather condition is preferred by this dog? Can they tolerate hot or cold weather and climate?
| Prefers cold weather |
The Tibetan Mastiff can adapt well to harsh weather conditions, and also can be a good mountain dog. Dogs can suffer from frostbite and hypothermia in extremely cold weather, so it is important to take precautions to keep your dog safe and comfortable during the winter months.
How stinky is this dog? Why does it smell bad and how to get rid of the smell?
The Tibetan Mastiff has a high chance of bad smell. Top reasons for dog stinkiness: infection of bad tooth/ear/skin folds, gas attacks.
Drooling Tendency |
Does the Tibetan Mastiff drool?
The Tibetan Mastiff is a big drooler, so if you're disgusted by slobber spots on your clothes, you should choose a dog from another breed. Drooling is the unintentional saliva flowing outside of the mouth. It can be completely normal or a sign of a health problem. Certain dog breeds drool much more than others, just like the Tibetan Mastiff.
If you notice any change in your dog's drooling habit, you should contact a vet as soon as possible.
Service Dog |
Are they good as service dogs? Can Tibetan Mastiff be a guide dog? Are they used as seeing-eye dogs?
This breed generally not used as a service dog. A service dog is a term used in the USA to refer to any type of assistance dog specifically trained to help people who have disabilities, such as visual impairment, hearing impairments, mental disorders, seizures, mobility impairment, and diabetes. Service dogs are protected under the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act).
Tibetan Mastiff is not the best breed for service purposes.
Therapy Dog |
Are they good as therapy dogs? Can Tibetan Mastiff be a therapy dog? Are they good anxiety dogs? Can a Tibetan Mastiff be an emotional support animal?
This breed is generally not used as a therapy dog. A therapy dog is a dog that might be trained to provide affection, comfort, and love to people in hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes, schools, hospices, disaster areas, and people with anxiety disorders or autism.
Tibetan Mastiff is not the best breed for therapeutic purposes.
Detection Dog or Sniffer Dog |
Are they good as detection dogs? Can Tibetan Mastiff be a sniffer dog?
They are not typically employed for this type of work, but there may be exceptional cases. A detection dog or sniffer dog is a dog that is trained to use its senses (mostly its smell) to detect substances such as explosives, illegal drugs, wildlife scat, currency, blood, and contraband electronics such as illicit mobile phones.
Tibetan Mastiff is not the best breed for detection purposes.
Search and Rescue Dog (SAR) |
Are they good as SAR dogs? Can Tibetan Mastiff be a search and rescue dog?
This dog breed is not typically used as a search and rescue dog. The use of dogs in search and rescue (SAR) is a valuable component in wilderness tracking, natural disasters, mass casualty events, and locating missing people.
The Tibetan Mastiff is not the best breed for SAR purposes.
Boat and Sailor Dog |
Are they good as boat dogs? Can Tibetan Mastiff be a boat dog?
Tibetan Mastiff breed usually doesn't like being on a boat.
Boat dogs were typically bred for their strength, stamina, and water resistance, as they were often required to perform tasks such as pulling in fishing nets, and jumping into the water to retrieve ropes or lines, or helping to move cargo.
Sailor dog is a type of dog that was bred to accompany sailors on their voyages. They were typically used for three purposes: as a working dog, a watchdog, and as a companion. A boat dog is a term used to describe a type of dog that was traditionally bred and used as a working dog on boats.
Cart Pulling or Drafting Dog |
Are they good as cart pulling dogs? Can Tibetan Mastiff be a drafting dog?
A drafting dog or draft dog is a dog bred and used for cart pulling. Dogs bred for this work have strong builds and qualities that are needed, strength and determination.
Tibetan Mastiff breed is a good choice for drafting purposes.
Fighting Dog / Military Dog |
Where Tibetan Mastiff dogs used as fighting / military dogs in history?
In history, this breed was not really used for combat dog.
Gestation Length |
How long is a Tibetan Mastiff pregnant?How long does it take to have puppies? How to tell if the Tibetan Mastiff breed is pregnant?
Reproductive cycle of the female Tibetan Mastiff: The first period called Proestrus lasts for about 9 days.
During this time the females start to attract males. You can notice by swelling vulva and bloody discharge.
The second part is the Estrus when the female is receptive for the male. It lasts for about 3 to 11 days.
The sign of the proestrus part is the soft and enlarged vulva. The discharge decreases and lightens in color.
The third part is the Diestrus. Normally, it occurs around day 14. In this period the female’s discharge changes for vivid red and coming to its end. The vulva returns to average, and she will no longer permit mating.
The fourth part called the Anestrus. The time frame between heat periods normally lasts about six months.
Once a year.
More frequent breeding is not healthy. It is very important not to buy a dog from a puppy mill, where the needs of the pups and their mothers are ignored. It's an inhumane high-volume dog breeding facility, where puppies born several times a year.
Litter Size |
How many puppies can the Tibetan Mastiff have in a litter? How many puppies can the Tibetan Mastiff breed have for the first time? How many puppies does a Tibetan Mastiff have? How many puppies can a Tibetan Mastiff give birth to?
AKC Group |
Is Tibetan Mastiff recognized by the American Kennel Club?
|Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 2006 as a Working breed.|
FCI Group |
Is Tibetan Mastiff recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI)?
|Recognized by FCI in the Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid and Swiss Mountain and Cattledogs group, in the Molossian type section.|
Breed Recognition |
What kennel clubs and organizations recognize or register the Tibetan Mastiff breed?
|American Canine RegistryAmerican Kennel ClubAmerica's Pet RegistryDog Registry of America Inc.Federation Cynologique InternationaleKennel Club of Great BritainNorth American Purebred Registry, Inc.American Canine Association, Inc.Continental Kennel ClubNational Kennel ClubNew Zealand Kennel Club|
Tibetan Mastiff Pros and Cons
- Watchdog Ability: Tibetan Mastiff dogs are one of the best watchdogs.
- Good For First Time Owners: Tibetan Mastiff dogs are good for novice owners, due to their easy-going personality.
- Cart Pulling or Drafting Dog: A drafting dog or draft dog is a dog bred and used for cart pulling.
- Health Issues: Tibetan Mastiffs tend to have more frequent health issues than other breeds.
- Hypoallergenic: Tibetan Mastiff dogs don't do well with allergy sufferers by causing allergic reactions.
- Apartment Friendly: Not an apartment-friendly dog the Tibetan Mastiff breed.
- Drooling Tendency: The Tibetan Mastiff is a big drooler, so if you're disgusted by slobber spots on your clothes, you should choose a dog from another breed.
- Stinkiness: The Tibetan Mastiff has a high chance of bad smell.
- Weight Gain Potential / Prone to Obesity: Average to High: If you don't pay attention to the Tibetan Mastiff's weight, he can easily gain weight.
- Mouthiness: Tibetan Mastiff dogs have a strong tendency to nip, chew, playbite, or herd people.
- Child Friendly: Tibetan Mastiff dogs are not the most kid-friendly dogs.
- Dog Friendly: Tibetan Mastiff dogs are not the most dog-friendly dogs.
- Office Friendly: Tibetan Mastiff is not the best dog breed for office environment.
- Senior Citizens Friendly: Tibetan Mastiffs are not the best breed for elderly people.
Tibetan Mastiff History
The Tibetan Mastiff can trace its ancestry back to the mountains of the Himalayas, in Tibet, even though the breed is nowadays more popular in the Western hemisphere. DNA evidence suggests that mastiff-type of breeds have existed in Tibet 5000 years ago and that the Tibetan Mastiff is a descendant of those early breeds. Many large-scale studies and scientific researches over the past years have confirmed that the Tibetan Mastiff is one of the oldest dog breeds still in existence. Moreover, many of them are presumed to diverge from the grey wolf ten thousand years ago. Thus, it is presumable that it may represent the foundation of many Molosser-type of breeds today, including the Rottweiler, the Bernese Mountain Dog, and the Pyrenean Mountain Dog. These breeds have developed into two types, the Do-Khyi and the larger Tsang-Khyi. The Do-Khyi lived in the villages and traveled with the nomadic herds and tribes serving as a guardian and herder of the flocks. The latter, Tsang-Khyi were often used by the Tibetan Buddhist monks or lamas who lived in remote areas, as their guardian dogs. Tibetans believed that the breed has the souls of monkeys, who were not good enough to be reincarnated into people or into the heavenly realm, Shambhala.
Not much was known about the Tibetan Mastiff until the 19th century. In 1800, Captain Samuel Turner mentioned the usage of huge-sized dogs in his memoir named “An account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet”, however, he never fully gave a description about the breed ha saw. The first specimen of the breed was exported to England and given to Queen Victoria as a gift from Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India in 1874. One year before, in 1873, England’s Kennel Club was founded, thus the Tibetan Mastiff automatically entered right away into the Stud Book as the Tibetan Mastiff, leaving its earlier name, “large dog from Tibet” behind. Moreover, in 1874, the Prince of Wales, who later became King Edward VII, was fond of the breed, and imported two more specimens to England, in order to show them to the public at the Alexandra Palace Show in 1875. That was the starting point of the massive import of the breed into England and Europe. During this period, over-breeding resulted in the loss of genetic and behavioral consistency, thus the breed subsequently lost some of its original appeals. The first Tibetan Mastiff breed club was founded in 1931. Because of the beginning of the Second World War, importing and breeding dogs were put to an end. It was not until 1976, that breeders began to breed and import Tibetan Mastiffs again.
The breed got to the United States of America in the late 1950s, when two Tibetan Mastiffs were given as presents to the President, but the dogs were taken into a farm and vanished from the public. Until the 1970s, there were not many specimens in America, but in 1970, multiple puppies were imported into the United States and these puppies became the foundation for the DNA base of the United States line of the breed. In 1974, the Tibetan Mastiff Club of America was formed, as was the American Tibetan Mastiff Association. In 1979, the first Tibetan Mastiff was shown in the first National Speciality Match.
In spite of the breed’s long history, it recently got recognized by the AKC (American Kennel Club), in 2006. Nowadays, the Tibetan Mastiff’s role is different than what it was previously. Yet, it is still a loyal, fierce guardian of its owners and family.
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Tibetan Mastiff Comments, Reviews and Questions
Jul 1, 2020, 3:11:12 AM:
My TM is fantastic! She has scared away preadators in the farm and has helped solved crimes. She is calm and gentle toward are kids and has been a great source for our family farm.
Apr 8, 2020, 4:02:04 AM:
I've owned three TMs now and they are fantastic if you know what you're getting into. A lot of your info looks like the author only read about TMs but has never owned one. I'd be happy to help.